Dark Hole Season 1 Complete Pack
In 1958, David Finkelstein identified the Schwarzschild surface as an event horizon, "a perfect unidirectional membrane: causal influences can cross it in only one direction". This did not strictly contradict Oppenheimer's results, but extended them to include the point of view of infalling observers. Finkelstein's solution extended the Schwarzschild solution for the future of observers falling into a black hole. A complete extension had already been found by Martin Kruskal, who was urged to publish it.
Dark Hole Season 1 Complete Pack
Work by James Bardeen, Jacob Bekenstein, Carter, and Hawking in the early 1970s led to the formulation of black hole thermodynamics. These laws describe the behaviour of a black hole in close analogy to the laws of thermodynamics by relating mass to energy, area to entropy, and surface gravity to temperature. The analogy was completed when Hawking, in 1974, showed that quantum field theory implies that black holes should radiate like a black body with a temperature proportional to the surface gravity of the black hole, predicting the effect now known as Hawking radiation.
John Michell used the term "dark star" in a November 1783 letter to Henry Cavendish, and in the early 20th century, physicists used the term "gravitationally collapsed object". Science writer Marcia Bartusiak traces the term "black hole" to physicist Robert H. Dicke, who in the early 1960s reportedly compared the phenomenon to the Black Hole of Calcutta, notorious as a prison where people entered but never left alive.
On 10 April 2019, an image was released of a black hole, which is seen magnified because the light paths near the event horizon are highly bent. The dark shadow in the middle results from light paths absorbed by the black hole. The image is in false color, as the detected light halo in this image is not in the visible spectrum, but radio waves.
A few theoretical objects have been conjectured to match observations of astronomical black hole candidates identically or near-identically, but which function via a different mechanism. These include the gravastar, the black star, and the dark-energy star.
Black holes formed by the collapse of individual stars are relatively small but incredibly dense. One of these objects packs more than three times the mass of the sun into the diameter of a city. This leads to a crazy amount of gravitational force pulling on objects around the object. Stellar black holes then consume the dust and gas from their surrounding galaxies, which keeps them growing in size.
Supermassive black holes may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge. Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass. A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together. Fourth, supermassive black holes could arise from large clusters of dark matter. This is a substance that we can observe through its gravitational effect on other objects; however, we don't know what dark matter is composed of because it does not emit light and cannot be directly observed.
For more thrills and chills, these two identical, totally enclosed black water chutes have over 350 feet of twists and turns in total darkness! Hop on a tube and kiss the sunlight goodbye. In complete darkness, every twist and turn is an exhilarating experience.
Black holes are regions in space where an enormous amount of mass is packed into a tiny volume. This creates a gravitational pull so strong that not even light can escape. They are created when giant stars collapse, and perhaps by other methods that are still unknown.
Understanding how fast the universe is expanding and therefore how it evolved. As we get more and more data on pairs of black holes colliding, Holz and others have worked out methods to use them to calculate how fast the universe is expanding. This number, called the Hubble Constant, is key to understanding the past, present, and future behavior of the universe, as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest - everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter - adds up to less than 5% of the universe. Come to think of it, maybe it shouldn't be called "normal" matter at all, since it is such a small fraction of the universe.
We are much more certain what dark matter is not than we are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that it is not in the form of stars and planets that we see. Observations show that there is far too little visible matter in the universe to make up the 27% required by the observations. Second, it is not in the form of dark clouds of normal matter, matter made up of particles called baryons. We know this because we would be able to detect baryonic clouds by their absorption of radiation passing through them. Third, dark matter is not antimatter, because we do not see the unique gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes on the basis of how many gravitational lenses we see. High concentrations of matter bend light passing near them from objects further away, but we do not see enough lensing events to suggest that such objects to make up the required 25% dark matter contribution.
Around the same time, Claudia also sends Jonas Kahnwald from the future back to 1986 with their broken version of the device to have Tannhaus repair the machine. Jonas explains that the device can create a wormhole, but that he intends to use it to close the current one inside the caves. Tannhaus discovered that he can activate a part of the device using Ulrich Nielsen's smartphone, which was left in his shop in 1953. Tannhaus does not repair Jonas's machine but rather completes the one he has been working on. Jonas completes the last step to be able to use the machine and places the radioactive isotope Cs-137 in a container in the device. He leaves with the newly completed machine.
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[More] Starring: Chris Hemsworth, Natalie Portman, Anthony Hopkins, Tom Hiddleston Directed By: Kenneth Branagh #7 Marvel's the Avengers (2012) 91% #7 Adjusted Score: 105818% Critics Consensus: Thanks to a script that emphasizes its heroes' humanity and a wealth of superpowered set pieces, The Avengers lives up to its hype and raises the bar for Marvel at the movies. Synopsis: When Thor's evil brother, Loki (Tom Hiddleston), gains access to the unlimited power of the energy cube called the Tesseract,... [More] Starring: Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth Directed By: Joss Whedon #8 Thor: The Dark World (2013) 66% #8 Adjusted Score: 77033% Critics Consensus: It may not be the finest film to come from the Marvel Universe, but Thor: The Dark World still offers plenty of the humor and high-stakes action that fans have come to expect. Synopsis: In ancient times, the gods of Asgard fought and won a war against an evil race known as the Dark... [More] Starring: Chris Hemsworth, Natalie Portman, Tom Hiddleston, Stellan Skarsgård Directed By: Alan Taylor #9 Iron Man 3 (2013) 79% #9 Adjusted Score: 91869% Critics Consensus: With the help of its charismatic lead, some impressive action sequences, and even a few surprises, Iron Man 3 is a witty, entertaining adventure and a strong addition to the Marvel canon. Synopsis: Plagued with worry and insomnia since saving New York from destruction, Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.), now, is more dependent... [More] Starring: Robert Downey Jr., Gwyneth Paltrow, Don Cheadle, Guy Pearce Directed By: Shane Black #10 Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) 90% #10 Adjusted Score: 102424% Critics Consensus: Suspenseful and politically astute, Captain America: The Winter Soldier is a superior entry in the Avengers canon and is sure to thrill Marvel diehards. Synopsis: After the cataclysmic events in New York with his fellow Avengers, Steve Rogers, aka Captain America (Chris Evans), lives in... [More] Starring: Chris Evans, Scarlett Johansson, Samuel L. Jackson, Sebastian Stan Directed By: Anthony Russo, Joe Russo #11 Guardians of the Galaxy (2014) 92% #11 Adjusted Score: 105496% Critics Consensus: Guardians of the Galaxy is just as irreverent as fans of the frequently zany Marvel comic would expect -- as well as funny, thrilling, full of heart, and packed with visual splendor. Synopsis: Brash space adventurer Peter Quill (Chris Pratt) finds himself the quarry of relentless bounty hunters after he steals an orb... [More] Starring: Chris Pratt, Zoe Saldana, Dave Bautista, Vin Diesel Directed By: James Gunn #12 Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017) 85% #12 Adjusted Score: 114908% Critics Consensus: Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2's action-packed plot, dazzling visuals, and irreverent humor add up to a sequel that's almost as fun -- if not quite as thrillingly fresh -- as its predecessor. Synopsis: Peter Quill and his fellow Guardians are hired by a powerful alien race, the Sovereign, to protect their precious batteries... [More] Starring: Chris Pratt, Zoe Saldana, Bradley Cooper, Dave Bautista Directed By: James Gunn #13 Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) 76% #13 Adjusted Score: 90660% Critics Consensus: Exuberant and eye-popping, Avengers: Age of Ultron serves as an overstuffed but mostly satisfying sequel, reuniting its predecessor's unwieldy cast with a few new additions and a worthy foe. Synopsis: When Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.) jump-starts a dormant peacekeeping program, things go terribly awry, forcing him, Thor (Chris Hemsworth),... [More] Starring: Robert Downey Jr., Chris Hemsworth, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Evans Directed By: Joss Whedon #14 Ant-Man (2015) 83% #14 Adjusted Score: 95990% Critics Consensus: Led by a charming performance from Paul Rudd, Ant-Man offers Marvel thrills on an appropriately smaller scale -- albeit not as smoothly as its most successful predecessors. Synopsis: Forced out of his own company by former protégé Darren Cross, Dr. Hank Pym (Michael Douglas) recruits the talents of... [More] Starring: Paul Rudd, Michael Douglas, Evangeline Lilly, Corey Stoll Directed By: Peyton Reed #15 Captain America: Civil War (2016) 90% #15 Adjusted Score: 114638% Critics Consensus: Captain America: Civil War begins the next wave of Marvel movies with an action-packed superhero blockbuster boasting a decidedly non-cartoonish plot and the courage to explore thought-provoking themes. Synopsis: Political pressure mounts to install a system of accountability when the actions of the Avengers lead to collateral damage. The... [More] Starring: Chris Evans, Robert Downey Jr., Scarlett Johansson, Sebastian Stan Directed By: Anthony Russo, Joe Russo #16 Black Widow (2021) 79% #16 Adjusted Score: 100712% Critics Consensus: Black Widow's deeper themes are drowned out in all the action, but it remains a solidly entertaining standalone adventure that's rounded out by a stellar supporting cast. Synopsis: In Marvel Studios' action-packed spy thriller "Black Widow," Natasha Romanoff aka Black Widow confronts the darker parts of her ledger... [More] Starring: Scarlett Johansson, Florence Pugh, David Harbour, Rachel Weisz Directed By: Cate Shortland #17 Black Panther (2018) 96% #17 Adjusted Score: 122774% Critics Consensus: Black Panther elevates superhero cinema to thrilling new heights while telling one of the MCU's most absorbing stories -- and introducing some of its most fully realized characters. Synopsis: After the death of his father, T'Challa returns home to the African nation of Wakanda to take his rightful place... [More] Starring: Chadwick Boseman, Michael B. Jordan, Lupita Nyong'o, Danai Gurira Directed By: Ryan Coogler #18 Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017) 92% #18 Adjusted Score: 120021% Critics Consensus: Spider-Man: Homecoming does whatever a second reboot can, delivering a colorful, fun adventure that fits snugly in the sprawling MCU without getting bogged down in franchise-building. Synopsis: Thrilled by his experience with the Avengers, young Peter Parker returns home to live with his Aunt May. Under the... [More] Starring: Tom Holland, Michael Keaton, Robert Downey Jr., Marisa Tomei Directed By: Jon Watts #19 Doctor Strange (2016) 89% #19 Adjusted Score: 111128% Critics Consensus: Doctor Strange artfully balances its outré source material against the blockbuster constraints of the MCU, delivering a thoroughly entertaining superhero origin story in the bargain. Synopsis: Dr. Stephen Strange's (Benedict Cumberbatch) life changes after a car accident robs him of the use of his hands. When... [More] Starring: Benedict Cumberbatch, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Rachel McAdams, Benedict Wong Directed By: Scott Derrickson #20 Thor: Ragnarok (2017) 93% #20 Adjusted Score: 123996% Critics Consensus: Exciting, funny, and above all fun, Thor: Ragnarok is a colorful cosmic adventure that sets a new standard for its franchise -- and the rest of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Synopsis: Imprisoned on the other side of the universe, the mighty Thor finds himself in a deadly gladiatorial contest that pits... [More] Starring: Chris Hemsworth, Tom Hiddleston, Cate Blanchett, Idris Elba Directed By: Taika Waititi #21 Ant-Man and The Wasp (2018) 87% #21 Adjusted Score: 104359% Critics Consensus: A lighter, brighter superhero movie powered by the effortless charisma of Paul Rudd and Evangeline Lilly, Ant-Man and The Wasp offers a much-needed MCU palate cleanser. Synopsis: Scott Lang is grappling with the consequences of his choices as both a superhero and a father. Approached by Hope... [More] Starring: Paul Rudd, Evangeline Lilly, Michael Douglas, Michael Peña Directed By: Peyton Reed #22 Avengers: Infinity War (2018) 85% #22 Adjusted Score: 109622% Critics Consensus: Avengers: Infinity War ably juggles a dizzying array of MCU heroes in the fight against their gravest threat yet, and the result is a thrilling, emotionally resonant blockbuster that (mostly) realizes its gargantuan ambitions. Synopsis: Iron Man, Thor, the Hulk and the rest of the Avengers unite to battle their most powerful enemy yet --... [More] Starring: Robert Downey Jr., Chris Hemsworth, Josh Brolin, Chadwick Boseman Directed By: Anthony Russo, Joe Russo #23 Avengers: Endgame (2019) 94% #23 Adjusted Score: 125944% Critics Consensus: Exciting, entertaining, and emotionally impactful, Avengers: Endgame does whatever it takes to deliver a satisfying finale to Marvel's epic Infinity Saga. Synopsis: Adrift in space with no food or water, Tony Stark sends a message to Pepper Potts as his oxygen supply... [More] Starring: Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth Directed By: Anthony Russo, Joe Russo Loki (2021) 92% #24 Synopsis: Loki, the God of Mischief, steps out of his brother's shadow to embark on an adventure that takes place after... [More] Starring: Tom Hiddleston, Sophia Di Martino, Owen Wilson, Gugu Mbatha-Raw Directed By: Kevin Feige, Louis D'Esposito, Victoria Alonso, Stephen Broussard What If...? (2021) 94% #25 Synopsis: Reimagining noteworthy events in the Marvel Cinematic Universe and creating a multiverse of infinite possibilities.... [More] Starring: Jeffrey Wright Directed By: Bryan Andrews, Brad Winderbaum, A.C. Bradley, Kevin Feige WandaVision (2021) 91% #26 Synopsis: Living idealized suburban lives, super-powered beings Wanda and Vision begin to suspect that everything is not as it seems.... [More] Starring: Elizabeth Olsen, Paul Bettany, Teyonah Parris, Kathryn Hahn Directed By: Jac Schaeffer, Kevin Feige The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021) 84% #27 Synopsis: Falcon and the Winter Soldier are a mismatched duo who team up for a global adventure that will test their... [More] Starring: Anthony Mackie, Sebastian Stan, Daniel Brühl, Emily VanCamp Directed By: Kari Skogland #28 Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019) 90% #28 Adjusted Score: 116128% Critics Consensus: A breezily unpredictable blend of teen romance and superhero action, Spider-Man: Far from Home stylishly sets the stage for the next era of the MCU. Synopsis: Peter Parker's relaxing European vacation takes an unexpected turn when Nick Fury shows up in his hotel room to recruit... [More] Starring: Tom Holland, Samuel L. Jackson, Jake Gyllenhaal, Marisa Tomei Directed By: Jon Watts #29 Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021) 91% #29 Adjusted Score: 107009% Critics Consensus: Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings isn't entirely free of Marvel's famili